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初中生学习成绩对外化问题、抑郁症状的影响:意志控制的作用
作者:张良  李腾飞  纪林芹  张文新 
单位:1. 山东师范大学心理学院  济南 250014  2. 曲阜师范大学教育学院  曲阜 273165 
关键词:学习成绩 外化问题 抑郁 意志控制 青少年 
分类号:R395.2
出版年,卷(期):页码:2018,26(2):304-308
摘要:

目的:考察学习成绩对外化问题和抑郁症状的纵向预测效应,以及意志控制在其中可能的调节作用。方法:采用追踪设计,以1286名初一学生为被试,在初一(T1)和初三(T2)时进行追踪测量。分别以儿童行为核查表、儿童抑郁调查表和青少年早期气质问卷修订版测量外化问题、抑郁症状和意志控制,以期末考试成绩作为学习成绩的指标。结果:控制T1外化问题或抑郁症状后,①T1学习成绩负向预测T2外化问题,且学习成绩×意志控制×性别显著预测外化问题,低意志控制男生在低学习成绩时产生最多的外化问题;②T1学习成绩不预测T2抑郁症状,意志控制负向预测抑郁症状,与学习成绩的交互项不显著。结论:学习不良预测外化问题,且意志控制缓冲这种影响;学习成绩不预测青少年抑郁症状,意志控制负向预测抑郁症状。

Objective:The present study aimed to investigate the longitudinal effects of academic achievement on exter-nalizing problems and depressive symptoms, and the potential moderating role of effortful control. Methods:Participants were 1,286 seventh-graders(657 males; mean age=13.20±0.35 years), who were measured at Grade 7(T1) and Grade 9(T2). Externalizing problems, depressive problems, and effortful control were measured by using the Children's Behavior Check-list Teacher's Report Form, the Children Depression Inventory, and the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire, re-spectively. Academic achievement was indicated by averaged within-class standardized scores across Chinese, math, and English. Results:When prior externalizing problems or depressive symptoms were controlled for, ①academic achievement at T1 significantly predicted externalizing problems at T2. The interaction term academic achievement×effortful control×gender predicted externalizing problems at T2. Specifically, males with low effortful control showed the highest level of ex-ternalizing problems when academic achievement was low; ②academic achievement at T1 failed to predict depressive symp-toms at T2, and effortful control exerted negative influence on depressive symptoms, which was stronger in males than in fe-males. Conclusion:Low academic achievement exacerbates adolescent externalizing problems, and this effect is mitigated by effortful control; depressive symptoms are negatively predicted by effortful control, but not academic achievement.

基金项目:
国家社会科学基金教育学一般课题(BBA140048)
作者简介:
参考文献:

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