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刷新功能的训练:内容、效果与机制
作者:赵鑫1  徐伊文婕1  霍小宁2 
单位:1. 西北师范大学心理学院行为康复训练研究中心  兰州 730070 
2.
 兰州市第三人民医院  兰州 730070 
关键词:刷新 认知训练 可塑性 工作记忆 
分类号:R395.1
出版年,卷(期):页码:2016,24(5):808-813
摘要:

近年来的研究表明,个体的刷新功能可以通过训练得到提高。研究者们以幼儿、儿童、成人、老年人为训练对象,采用活动记忆任务或n-back任务对个体的刷新功能进行训练。研究结果显示,通过训练,个体的刷新功能得到明显提升,并结合脑电以及脑成像等技术探索刷新功能提升背后的大脑机制。同时,训练效果可以迁移至个体的流体智力中。此外,有研究还发现训练效果可以保持3-6个月。然而,刷新功能的训练效果会受到训练间隔、个体差异、训练动机以及训练任务难度等因素的影响。通过训练使个体的刷新能力提升,可能是因为训练促进了个体大脑形成特定脑区激活模式。训练导致激素分泌水平提升与血流增加,使相关脑区激活,随着训练任务从注意努力进入自动化加工模式,脑区激活程度明显减弱,说明训练提高了个体神经网络的效率。该领域未来的研究重点应关注刷新训练的内在机制、训练效果的保持时间及影响效果的因素等问题。

Recent studies suggest that updating inhibition can be modified by training. Taking infants, children, adults and the elderly as the training objects, using running working memory task or n-back task trained individual's updating function, it has been showed that individual's updating function can be enhanced significantly through training combined with some techniques such as EEG and brain imagine to explore the brain mechanism after that. Simultaneously, the training effect could be migrated to individual's fluid intelligence. In addition, it found that the training effect could keep for 3 to 6 months, which would be influenced by training interval, individual's difference, training motivation, training task complexity and other factors. Improving individual's updating ability through training may promote the activation of specific brain regions. Training leads to increase of hormone secretion and blood speed, which activates the brain regions. As training task made it from effort into automatically processing mode, brain activation was significantly reduced, which suggested training improved efficiency of individual's neural network. Future research should focus on the internal mechanism of updating training, the retention time of training effect, the influence and other problems.

基金项目:
国家自然科学基金项目(31560283,31300838),教育部人文社会科学研究项目(13YJC190032),认知神经科学与学习国家重点实验室开放课题(CNLYB1317)和兰州市人才创新创业项目(2015-RC-60)资助
作者简介:
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