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长沙市中学生抑郁伴/不伴焦虑的调查
作者:马静1  禹顺英2  梁珊3  丁军4  冯哲4  杨帆4  高维佳4  林佳妮4  黄春香4  刘学军1  苏林雁4 
单位:1. 湖南省第二人民医院精神科  长沙 410000 
2.
 上海交通大学医学院上海市精神卫生中心遗传学实验室  上海 200030 
3.
 长沙市未成年人心理发展咨询指导中心  长沙 410000 
4.
 中南大学湘雅二医院精神卫生研究所  长沙 410011 
关键词:青少年|抑郁伴焦虑|检出率|临床特征 
分类号:R395.2
出版年,卷(期):页码:2013,21(5):708-712
摘要:

目的:了解长沙市中学生抑郁检出率及性别差异、随年龄变化趋势。探讨青少年抑郁伴/不伴焦虑临床特征的差别。方法:采取整群抽样法抽取长沙10所中学3965名学生(11~18岁),完成自评情绪和感受问卷(MFQ-C)、儿童焦虑性情绪障碍筛查量表(SCARED)、长处和困难问卷(SDQ)。结果:①抑郁症状者总检出率为30.70%,男性检出率为26.8%,女性为34.6%,女性检出率较男性高。青春早期(11~12岁)检出率为18%,青春中期(13~15岁)为30.9%,青春晚期(16~18岁)为36.5%。青春中期较青春早期检出率显著上升(LRχ2=40.70,P<0.001),青春晚期较青春中期检出率进一步上升(LRχ2=11.41,P=0.001)。②抑郁伴焦虑者占总抑郁症状人数的55.3%,抑郁不伴焦虑者占44.7%。抑郁伴焦虑的发生率高于抑郁不伴焦虑(LRχ2=73.64,P<0.001);存在抑郁的男生中有47%伴焦虑,而存在抑郁的女生有61.9%伴焦虑,女生抑郁伴焦虑的发生率高于男生(Pearsonχ2=26.79,P<0.001)。③伴焦虑组学生SDQ情绪症状(t=14.33,P<0.001)、品行问题(t=3.2,P=0.001)、同伴交往问题(t=2.39,P=0.017)、多动注意缺陷问题(t=3.17,P=0.002)、总困难得分(t=10.51,P<0.001)均显著高于不伴焦虑组。结论 :①11~18岁中学生MFQ-C抑郁总检出率为30.70%,女性检出率较男性高。检出率呈现由青春早期至青春晚期逐渐上升的趋势。抑郁伴焦虑的发生率高于抑郁不伴焦虑,女生抑郁伴焦虑的发生率高于男生。②与抑郁不伴焦虑的学生相比,抑郁伴焦虑的学生具有更高的抑郁水平、更多的品行问题、多动注意缺陷问题及同伴相处困难。

Objective: To describe the prevalence of depression in middle school students, and to explore the clinical characteristics of anxious and non-anxious depressive adolescents. Methods: A sampe of 3965 students(ages 11-18 years)in Changsha were screened using cluster sampling. Child Mood and Feelings Questionnaire(MFQ-C), Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders(SCARED), strength and difficulty questionnaire(SDQ) were used. Results: ①Prevalence rate of subjects over MFQ-C cut-off point is 30.70%, 26.8% in males and 34.6% in females, prevalence in females is higher than that in males. The prevalence rate is 18% in early adolescence(11-12 years), 30.9% in middle adolescence(13-15 years),36.5% in late adolescence(16-18 years). Prevalence in middle adolescence is higher than early adolescence, and prevalence in late adolescence is even higher. ②55.3% of potential depressive students are anxious-depression, and 44.7% are non-anxious depression. The prevalence of anxious depression is higher than non-anxious depression, with females higher than males. ③Anxious depressive students scored higher than non-anxious depressive students on SDQ emotional symptoms, conduct problems, peer relationship problems, attention deficit and hyperactivity problems, total difficulty score;Anxious depressive students scored higher than non-anxious depressive students on MFQ-C. Conclusion: ①Prevalence rate of depression in 11-to-18 year-old adolescents is 30.70%, prevalence in females is higher than that in males. There is an increase trend from early adolescence to late adolescence. The prevalence rate of anxious depression is higher than non-anxious depression, with females higher than males. ② Anxious depressive students have more severe depressive symptom, behavioral problems, attention deficit, hyperactivity problems, and peer relationship problems.

基金项目:
国家自然科学基金项目(30770767)
作者简介:
参考文献:

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